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The census showed that the majority of Hungarians were Christians Jewish 0. Education in Hungary is predominantly public, run by the Ministry of Education.

Preschool - kindergarten education is compulsory and provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is also compulsory until the age of sixteen.

Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the Gymnasium enrolls the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the secondary vocational schools for intermediate students lasts four years and the technical school prepares pupils for vocational education and the world of work.

The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance.

Most of the Hungarian universities are public institutions , and students traditionally study without fee payment. The general requirement for university is the Matura.

The Hungarian public higher education system includes universities and other higher education institutes, that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities.

Health insurance for students is free until the end of their studies. English and German language is important in Hungarian higher education, there are a number of degree programs that are taught in these languages, which attracts thousands of exchange students every year.

Hungary's higher education and training has been ranked 44 out of countries in the Global Competitiveness Report Hungary has a long tradition of higher education reflecting the existence of established knowledge economy.

The Budapest University of Technology and Economics is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure, its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in by Emperor Joseph II.

Hungary ranks fourth above neighbour Romania, and after China, the United States and Russia in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with total medals, dating back to Hungary maintains a universal health care system largely financed by government national health insurance.

Hungary is well known for its spa culture and is home to numerous medicinal spas , [] which attract "spa tourism".

In common with other developed countries, cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality, accounting for Hungary ranks as the 17th safest country in the world, with a homicide rate of 1.

Notable architectural styles in Hungary include Historicism and Art Nouveau , or rather several variants of Art Nouveau.

In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics. Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, Ödön Lechner — , the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs.

In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary.

Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries.

The Sezession from Vienna , the German Jugendstil , Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the 20th century.

In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in Foreigners have unexpectedly "discovered" that a significantly large portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings.

In the Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about one hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceilings, and motifs on the front wall.

Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word.

His music was invigorated by the themes, modes, and rhythmic patterns of the Hungarian and neighboring folk music traditions he studied, which he synthesized with influences from his contemporaries into his own distinctive style.

Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk , popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music.

After the establishment of a music academy led by Ferenc Erkel and Franz Liszt Hungary produced an important number of art musicians:.

Broughton claims that Hungary's "infectious sound has been surprisingly influential on neighboring countries thanks perhaps to the common Austro-Hungarian history and it's not uncommon to hear Hungarian-sounding tunes in Romania, Slovakia and Poland".

Hungarian classical music has long been an "experiment, made from Hungarian antecedents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture [using the] musical world of the folk song".

During the era of communist rule in Hungary — , a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity.

Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice , from the s, also remain popular. In the earliest times, Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation.

The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary — It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem.

Both are in Latin. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic.

Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias — Janus Pannonius , although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian Humanist poet of the period.

The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. Balassi's poetry shows medieval influences, his poems can be divided into three sections: love poems, war poems and religious poems.

The translation is called the Bible of Vizsoly , after the town where it was first published. See Bible translations into Hungarian for more details.

The Hungarian enlightenment took place about fifty years after the French Enlightenment. The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy.

The Hungarian language became feasible for all type of scientific explanations from this time, and furthermore many new words were coined for describing new inventions.

Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary mostly through translations into German, French and English.

The latter is a contemporary Jewish writer who survived the Holocaust and won the Nobel Prize for literature in The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry have remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary.

Dishes are often flavoured with paprika ground red peppers , a Hungarian innovation. Thick, heavy Hungarian sour cream called tejföl is often used to soften the dishes' flavour.

Perec and kifli are widely popular pastries. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot barack and cherry cseresznye.

However, plum szilva is the most popular flavour. Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes.

There is an urban legend in Hungarian culture that Austrian generals clinked their beer glasses to celebrate the execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad in Many people still follow the tradition, although younger people often disavow it, citing that the vow was only meant to last years.

The Hungarians brought their wine-making knowledge from the East. According to Ibn Rustah , the Hungarian tribes were familiar with wine-making long time before the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin.

Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including Beethoven , Liszt , Schubert and Goethe ; Joseph Haydn 's favorite wine was a Tokaji.

For over years, a blend of forty Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur Unicum. Hungary is a land of thermal water.

A passion for spa culture and Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. Hungarian spas feature Roman , Greek , Turkish , and northern country architectural elements.

Approximately 1, thermal springs can be found in Hungary more than just in the Capital area. There are approximately public baths in Hungary.

The Romans heralded the first age of spas in Hungary. In the 19th century, the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture.

Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man's dances from Transylvania , and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group.

Verbunkos is a solo man's dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the Austro-Hungarian army. Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men.

The dance is generally performed freestyle by one dancer at a time in front of a band. Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side, and singing or shouting verses while the men dance.

Each man performs a number of points dance phrases , typically four to eight without repetition. Each point consists of four parts, each lasting four counts.

The first part is usually the same for everyone there are only a few variations. It was in the beginning of the 18th-century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences.

Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. The most frequent ornament is a flower with a centerpiece resembling the eye of a peacock's feather.

Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all.

The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow-cases and sheets.

The embroidery motifs applied to women's wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations.

These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes. No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating.

The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece. Founded in , Herend Porcelain is one of the world's largest ceramic factories, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain.

In the midth century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. Many of its classic patterns are still in production.

Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles and stoneware. The company introduced the eosin glazing process and pyrogranite ceramics.

In , his son, Vilmos Zsolnay — joined the company and became its manager and director after several years. He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the World Fair in Vienna, then at the World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix.

Hungarian athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , only ten countries have won more Olympic medals than Hungary, with a total of medals ranking eighth in an all-time Olympic Games medal count.

Hungary has the third-highest number of Olympic medals per capita and second-highest number of gold medals per capita in the world.

In water polo the Hungarian team is the leading medal winner by a significant margin and in swimming Hungarian men are fourth most successful overall, while the women are eighth most successful overall.

They have also seen success in canoeing and kayaking they are the third most successful overall. Budapest has also lost several bids to host the games, in , , , , and to Berlin , Antwerp , London , and Rome , respectively.

At the Hungarian Grand Prix , it was confirmed that Hungary will continue to host a Formula 1 race until Chess is also a popular and successful sport in Hungary, the Hungarian players are the 10th most powerful overall on the ranking of World Chess Federation.

Some of the world's best sabre athletes have historically also hailed from Hungary, [] [] and in , the Hungary men's national ice hockey team qualified for their first IIHF World Championship , in , they qualified for their second World Championship in the top division.

The side of that era has the second all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world , with , and one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games spanning more than four years.

The post-golden age decades saw a gradually weakening Hungary, though recently there is renewal in all aspects. The Hungarian Children's Football Federation was founded in , as youth development thrives.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country located in Central Europe. This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Hungary disambiguation. Main article: Name of Hungary. Main article: History of Hungary. Main articles: Hungarian prehistory and Hungarian mythology.

Main article: Ottoman—Hungarian Wars. Main articles: Hungary between the World Wars and Hungarian interwar economy. Majority Hungarian areas according to the census detached from Hungary.

See also: Goulash Communism. See also: Revolutions of and protests in Hungary. Main article: Geography of Hungary.

See also: List of national parks of Hungary. Main articles: Political parties in Hungary and Elections in Hungary. Main articles: Law of Hungary and Law enforcement in Hungary.

Main article: Administrative divisions of Hungary. Main article: Foreign relations of Hungary. Main article: Hungarian Defence Force.

Main article: Economy of Hungary. Main articles: Science and technology in Hungary and Education in Hungary. Main article: Transport in Hungary. Main article: List of cities and towns of Hungary.

Main articles: Hungarian language and Languages of Hungary. Main article: Religion in Hungary.

Hungarian Greek Catholic Church 1. Calvinism Lutheranism 2. Irreligious No response Main article: Education in Hungary.

Main article: Healthcare in Hungary. Main article: Culture of Hungary. Main article: Architecture of Hungary. Main article: Music of Hungary.

Main article: Hungarian literature. Main article: Hungarian cuisine. See also: Hungarian wine and Beer in Hungary.

Main articles: Herend Porcelain and Zsolnay. See also: Hungary at the Olympics. See also: Football in Hungary. Hungary portal Europe portal.

Jules S. Retrieved 8 May Hungarian State. Mikrocenzus — Ethnic data ] PDF. Hungarian Central Statistical Office in Hungarian.

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Retrieved 15 March Lee Ready , World War Two. Nation by Nation , London, Cassell, page BBC British broadcasting service. But among all these broadcasts, there were crucial things that were not being said, things that might have warned thousands of Hungarian Jews of the horrors to come in the event of a German occupation.

And yet his policy of silence on the Jews was followed until the German invasion in March After the tanks rolled in, the Hungarian Service did then broadcast warnings.

But by then it was too late "Many Hungarian Jews who survived the deportations claimed that they had not been informed by their leaders, that no one had told them.

But there's plenty of evidence that they could have known," said David Cesarani, professor of history at Royal Holloway, University of London.

Retrieved 13 February The Independent. Retrieved 20 April Archived from the original PDF on 1 October Retrieved 5 August Archived from the original on 28 May Pogany Righting Wrongs in Eastern Europe.

Manchester University Press. Rieber Forced Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, — Psychology Press. A presidential decree imposing an obligation on individuals not engaged in useful work to accept jobs served as the basis for this action.

As a result, according to documentation in the ministry of foreign affairs of the USSR, approximately 50, Hungarians were sent to work in factories and agricultural enterprises in the Czech Republic.

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Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 4 March Digital Journal. Archived from the original on 15 March The Huns were a group of Eurasian nomads , appearing from east of the Volga , who migrated further into Western Europe c.

Their main military techniques were mounted archery and javelin throwing. They were in the process of developing settlements before their arrival in Western Europe, yet the Huns were a society of pastoral warriors [18] : whose primary form of nourishment was meat and milk, products of their herds.

The origin and language of the Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries. According to some theories, their leaders at least may have spoken a Turkic language , perhaps closest to the modern Chuvash language.

Attila's father Mundzuk was the brother of kings Octar and Ruga , who reigned jointly over the Hunnic empire in the early fifth century.

This form of diarchy was recurrent with the Huns, but historians are unsure whether it was institutionalized, merely customary, or an occasional occurrence.

Attila grew up in a rapidly changing world. His people were nomads who had only recently arrived in Europe. They were a very mobile people, whose mounted archers had acquired a reputation for invincibility, and the Germanic tribes seemed unable to withstand them.

In , the Goths crossed the Danube, initially submitting to the Romans but soon rebelling against Emperor Valens , whom they killed in the Battle of Adrianople in The Roman Emperors, both East and West, were generally from the Theodosian family in Attila's lifetime despite several power struggles.

The Huns dominated a vast territory with nebulous borders determined by the will of a constellation of ethnically varied peoples.

Some were assimilated to Hunnic nationality, whereas many retained their own identities and rulers but acknowledged the suzerainty of the king of the Huns.

They exchanged ambassadors and hostages, the alliance lasting from to and permitting the Romans numerous military victories.

The Huns had become a great power by the time that Attila came of age during the reign of his uncle Ruga, to the point that Nestorius , the Patriarch of Constantinople, deplored the situation with these words: "They have become both masters and slaves of the Romans".

The death of Rugila also known as Rua or Ruga in left the sons of his brother Mundzuk , Attila and Bleda , in control of the united Hun tribes.

The Romans agreed to return the fugitives, to double their previous tribute of Roman pounds c. The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the Roman Empire and returned to their home in the Great Hungarian Plain , perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire.

Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinople , building the city's first sea wall , and to build up his border defenses along the Danube.

The Huns remained out of Roman sight for the next few years while they invaded the Sassanid Empire. They were defeated in Armenia by the Sassanids, abandoned their invasion, and turned their attentions back to Europe.

In , they reappeared in force on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty of Crossing the Danube, they laid waste to the cities of Illyricum and forts on the river, including according to Priscus Viminacium , a city of Moesia.

Their advance began at Margus, where they demanded that the Romans turn over a bishop who had retained property that Attila regarded as his.

While the Romans discussed the bishop's fate, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them. While the Huns attacked city-states along the Danube, the Vandals led by Geiseric captured the Western Roman province of Africa and its capital of Carthage.

Carthage was the richest province of the Western Empire and a main source of food for Rome. The Romans stripped the Balkan area of forces, sending them to Sicily in order to mount an expedition against the Vandals in Africa.

This left Attila and Bleda a clear path through Illyricum into the Balkans, which they invaded in During , Theodosius recalled his troops from Sicily and ordered a large issue of new coins to finance operations against the Huns.

He believed that he could defeat the Huns and refused the Hunnish kings' demands. Attila responded with a campaign in Priscus said "When we arrived at Naissus we found the city deserted, as though it had been sacked; only a few sick persons lay in the churches.

We halted at a short distance from the river, in an open space, for all the ground adjacent to the bank was full of the bones of men slain in war.

They encountered and destroyed a Roman army outside Constantinople but were stopped by the double walls of the Eastern capital.

They defeated a second army near Callipolis Gelibolu. Theodosius, unable to make effective armed resistance, admitted defeat, sending the Magister militum per Orientem Anatolius to negotiate peace terms.

The terms were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6, Roman pounds c. Their demands were met for a time, and the Hun kings withdrew into the interior of their empire.

Bleda died following the Huns' withdrawal from Byzantium probably around Attila then took the throne for himself, becoming the sole ruler of the Huns.

The Roman army , under Gothic magister militum Arnegisclus , met him in the Battle of the Utus and was defeated, though not without inflicting heavy losses.

The Huns were left unopposed and rampaged through the Balkans as far as Thermopylae. Constantinople itself was saved by the Isaurian troops of magister militum per Orientem Zeno and protected by the intervention of prefect Constantinus , who organized the reconstruction of the walls that had been previously damaged by earthquakes and, in some places, to construct a new line of fortification in front of the old.

Callinicus, in his Life of Saint Hypatius , wrote:. The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace , became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured and Constantinople almost came into danger and most men fled from it.

And there were so many murders and blood-lettings that the dead could not be numbered. Ay, for they took captive the churches and monasteries and slew the monks and maidens in great numbers.

The gifts and diplomatic efforts of Geiseric , who opposed and feared the Visigoths, may also have influenced Attila's plans.

However, Valentinian's sister was Honoria , who had sent the Hunnish king a plea for help—and her engagement ring—in order to escape her forced betrothal to a Roman senator in the spring of Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, but Attila chose to interpret her message as such.

He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry. When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of his mother Galla Placidia convinced him to exile Honoria, rather than killing her.

He also wrote to Attila, strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal. Attila sent an emissary to Ravenna to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his.

Attila interfered in a succession struggle after the death of a Frankish ruler. The location and identity of these kings is not known and subject to conjecture.

Attila gathered his vassals — Gepids , Ostrogoths , Rugians , Scirians , Heruls , Thuringians , Alans , Burgundians , among others—and began his march west.

In , he arrived in Belgica with an army exaggerated by Jordanes to half a million strong. Other cities attacked can be determined by the hagiographic vitae written to commemorate their bishops: Nicasius was slaughtered before the altar of his church in Rheims ; Servatus is alleged to have saved Tongeren with his prayers, as Saint Genevieve is said to have saved Paris.

Attila decided to fight the Romans on plains where he could use his cavalry. The two armies clashed in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains , the outcome of which is commonly considered to be a strategic victory for the Visigothic-Roman alliance.

Attila returned in to renew his marriage claim with Honoria, invading and ravaging Italy along the way. Communities became established in what would later become Venice as a result of these attacks when the residents fled to small islands in the Venetian Lagoon.

His army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileia so completely that it was afterwards hard to recognize its original site. Attila finally halted at the River Po.

By this point, disease and starvation may have taken hold in Attila's camp, thus hindering his war efforts and potentially contributing to the cessation of invasion.

Priscus reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric gave him pause—as Alaric died shortly after sacking Rome in Italy had suffered from a terrible famine in and her crops were faring little better in Attila's devastating invasion of the plains of northern Italy this year did not improve the harvest.

Therefore, it was more profitable for Attila to conclude peace and retreat to his homeland. Furthermore, an East Roman force had crossed the Danube under the command of another officer also named Aetius—who had participated in the Council of Chalcedon the previous year—and proceeded to defeat the Huns who had been left behind by Attila to safeguard their home territories.

Attila, hence, faced heavy human and natural pressures to retire "from Italy without ever setting foot south of the Po ". The Huns, who had been plundering Italy and who had also stormed a number of cities, were victims of divine punishment, being visited with heaven-sent disasters: famine and some kind of disease.

In addition, they were slaughtered by auxiliaries sent by the Emperor Marcian and led by Aetius, and at the same time, they were crushed in their [home] settlements Thus crushed, they made peace with the Romans and all returned to their homes.

Marcian was the successor of Theodosius, and he had ceased paying tribute to the Huns in late while Attila was occupied in the west. Multiple invasions by the Huns and others had left the Balkans with little to plunder.

However, he died in the early months of The conventional account from Priscus says that Attila was at a feast celebrating his latest marriage, this time to the beautiful young Ildico the name suggests Gothic or Ostrogoth origins.

An alternative theory is that he succumbed to internal bleeding after heavy drinking, possibly a condition called esophageal varices , where dilated veins in the lower part of the esophagus rupture leading to death by hemorrhage.

Another account of his death was first recorded 80 years after the events by Roman chronicler Marcellinus Comes.

It reports that "Attila, King of the Huns and ravager of the provinces of Europe, was pierced by the hand and blade of his wife".

Priscus' version, however, has recently come under renewed scrutiny by Michael A. On the following day, when a great part of the morning was spent, the royal attendants suspected some ill and, after a great uproar, broke in the doors.

There they found the death of Attila accomplished by an effusion of blood, without any wound, and the girl with downcast face weeping beneath her veil.

Then, as is the custom of that race, they plucked out the hair of their heads and made their faces hideous with deep wounds, that the renowned warrior might be mourned, not by effeminate wailings and tears, but by the blood of men.

Moreover a wondrous thing took place in connection with Attila's death. For in a dream some god stood at the side of Marcian, Emperor of the East, while he was disquieted about his fierce foe, and showed him the bow of Attila broken in that same night, as if to intimate that the race of Huns owed much to that weapon.

This account the historian Priscus says he accepts upon truthful evidence. For so terrible was Attila thought to be to great empires that the gods announced his death to rulers as a special boon.

His body was placed in the midst of a plain and lay in state in a silken tent as a sight for men's admiration. The best horsemen of the entire tribe of the Huns rode around in circles, after the manner of circus games, in the place to which he had been brought and told of his deeds in a funeral dirge in the following manner: "The chief of the Huns, King Attila, born of his sire Mundiuch, lord of bravest tribes, sole possessor of the Scythian and German realms—powers unknown before—captured cities and terrified both empires of the Roman world and, appeased by their prayers, took annual tribute to save the rest from plunder.

And when he had accomplished all this by the favor of fortune, he fell, not by wound of the foe, nor by treachery of friends, but in the midst of his nation at peace, happy in his joy and without sense of pain.

Who can rate this as death, when none believes it calls for vengeance? When they had mourned him with such lamentations, a strava, as they call it, was celebrated over his tomb with great revelling.

They gave way in turn to the extremes of feeling and displayed funereal grief alternating with joy. Then in the secrecy of night they buried his body in the earth.

They bound his coffins, the first with gold, the second with silver and the third with the strength of iron, showing by such means that these three things suited the mightiest of kings; iron because he subdued the nations, gold and silver because he received the honors of both empires.

They also added the arms of foemen won in the fight, trappings of rare worth, sparkling with various gems, and ornaments of all sorts whereby princely state is maintained.

And that so great riches might be kept from human curiosity, they slew those appointed to the work—a dreadful pay for their labor; and thus sudden death was the lot of those who buried him as well as of him who was buried.

Attila's sons Ellac , Dengizich and Ernak , "in their rash eagerness to rule they all alike destroyed his empire".

Attila's many children and relatives are known by name and some even by deeds, but soon valid genealogical sources all but dried up, and there seems to be no verifiable way to trace Attila's descendants.

This has not stopped many genealogists from attempting to reconstruct a valid line of descent for various medieval rulers. One of the most credible claims has been that of the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans for mythological Avitohol and Irnik from the Dulo clan of the Bulgars.

Attila himself is said to have claimed the titles "Descendant of the Great Nimrod ", and "King of the Huns, the Goths, the Danes , and the Medes "—the last two peoples being mentioned to show the extent of his control over subject nations even on the peripheries of his domain.

Jordanes embellished the report of Priscus , reporting that Attila had possessed the "Holy War Sword of the Scythians ", which was given to him by Mars and made him a "prince of the entire world".

By the end of the 12th century the royal court of Hungary proclaimed their descent from Attila. Lampert of Hersfeld 's contemporary chronicles report that shortly before the year , the Sword of Attila had been presented to Otto of Nordheim by the exiled queen of Hungary, Anastasia of Kiev.

An anonymous chronicler of the medieval period represented the meeting of Pope Leo and Atilla as attended also by Saint Peter and Saint Paul , "a miraculous tale calculated to meet the taste of the time" [49] This apotheosis was later portrayed artistically by the Renaissance artist Raphael and sculptor Algardi , whom eighteenth-century historian Edward Gibbon praised for establishing "one of the noblest legends of ecclesiastical tradition".

According to a version of this narrative related in the Chronicon Pictum , a mediaeval Hungarian chronicle, the Pope promised Attila that if he left Rome in peace, one of his successors would receive a holy crown which has been understood as referring to the Holy Crown of Hungary.

Frutolf of Michelsberg and Otto of Freising pointed out that some songs as "vulgar fables" made Theoderic the Great , Attila and Ermanaric contemporaries, when any reader of Jordanes knew that this was not the case.

Etzel is most prominent in the poems Dietrichs Flucht and the Rabenschlacht. Etzel also appears as Kriemhild 's second noble husband in the Nibelungenlied , in which Kriemhild causes the destruction of both the Hunnish kingdom and that of her Burgundian relatives.

In , Ludwig van Beethoven conceived the idea of writing an opera about Attila and approached August von Kotzebue to write the libretto.

It was, however, never written. American writer Cecelia Holland wrote The Death of Attila , a historical novel in which Attila appears as a powerful background figure whose life and death deeply impact the protagonists, a young Hunnic warrior and a Germanic one.

In modern Hungary and in Turkey , "Attila" and its Turkish variation "Atilla" are commonly used as a male first name.

In Hungary, several public places are named after Attila; for instance, in Budapest there are 10 Attila Streets, one of which is an important street behind the Buda Castle.

A nineteenth-century depiction of Attila. Certosa di Pavia - Medallion at the base of the facade. The Latin inscription tells that this is Attila, the scourge of God.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Attila disambiguation , Atilla disambiguation , and Attila the Hun disambiguation.

King and chieftain of the Hunnic Empire. Attila in an illustration from an edition of the Poetic Edda. Main article: Huns. Further information: Attila in popular culture.

The Catholic Encyclopedia vol. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Archived from the original on July 7, Retrieved May 18, Gallery of reconstructed portraits.

Retrieved March 9, Dunlap, Thomas translator 1st ed. University of California Press. The Origin and Deeds of the Goths.

Project Gutenberg. Translated by Mierow, Charles Christopher. Princeton : Princeton University.

Archived from the original on January 19, Retrieved November 24,

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